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Alphabet - Lesson 7
Tashdeed
Tashdeed (or geminate) is a sign that goes above a consonant to show that that consonant has to be pronounced as if there are two of them. Listen to the examples:
مَکّه
عِلَّت
ذَرّه
makke
ellat
zarre
Mecca
reason
bit
More trouble with the letter “و”
For historical reasons, there are Persian words in which the letter “و” preceding the letter “ا” and following the letter “خ” is silent.
خواهر
خواب
khāhar
khāb
sister
sleep
Worse than that, there are also words in which the letter “و” is pronounced like “o”, though it is not the last letter of a word. This includes most European loan words. Thus, we have two problems. First, when we encounter new words, there is a new potential pronunciation for the letter “و”. Second, when we want to guess the spelling of a word containing the sound “o”, a new possibility is that the letter “و” should be used instead of the short vowel sign which could be omitted.
There is no definite solution, but a helpful clue is that when “و” is read as “o”, most of the times, it is either preceded by “خ” (this has historical reasons again) or it is in a European loan word.
خود
خوردَن
آلبوم
اِلِکتِرون
khod
khordan
ālbom
elekteron
self
to eat
album
electron
A third trouble with the letter “و” is that it is sometimes pronounced as “ow” (sounding like the “ow” in the English word “grow”).
نو
دولَت
موز
قول
now
dowlat
mowz
ghowl
new
government
banana
promise