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Passive
Passive sentences emphasize the receiver of the action, by making what is normally the object of the verb the subject. This is the standard formula for changing the mode of a verb into passive:
past participle of the verb + the verb “شدن” in exactly the same state (time, phase, person,…) as the original verb
As an example, the passive form of the English verb “killed” is “was killed”. “Killed” is equal to the Persian “کشت”. To make it passive, we first find the past participle of the verb “کشتن” which is “کشته”. Then we have to make the equal form of the verb “کشت” from the infinitive “شدن”. That means we have to find the past simple form of the verb “شدن” for the third person singular, which will be “شد”.So the final product will be the combination of the two which is “کشته شد”.
حسین کشته شد.
غذای شما خورده نشده است.
از آنجا به راحتی دیده می‌شویم.
گلستان توسط سعدی نوشته شد.
Hossein was killed.
Your food has not been eaten.
We will be seen from there easily.
Gulistan was written by Sa’di.
Here is an example for a combined verb; “نشان دادن” (“to show”).
در این آینه، سرنوشتِ شما به شما نشان داده می‌شود.
In this mirror, your destiny
will be shown to you.
Exceptions
There are two major groups of verbs that do not follow the general passive form rule.
1- Some (and just some) of the combined verbs whose verb part is from the infinitive “زدن” (“to hit”). To make these passive, all you have to do is to make what is originally the object of the verb the subject and change the verb part of the combined verb of the sentence to a verb from the infinitive “خوردن” (“to eat, to be hit”) that agrees with the new subject.
محسن رضا را کتک زد.
(Mohsen beat up Reza.)
یک نفر به تابلو دست زده است.
(Someone has touched the painting.)
رضا کتک خورد.
(Reze was beaten up.)
نقاشی دست خورده است.
(The painting has been touched.)
2- All the combined verbs that their verb part is from the infinitive “کردن” (to do, to make) undergo something similar to what was explained above. Here, the verb that replaces “کردن” is from the infinitive “شدن” (to become). Putting it in another way, we can say that the normal process takes place, except that the participle of the verb part is omitted. For instance, the passive form of the verb “راهنمایی کرد” (guided), if we follow the general rule, will be “راهنمایی کرده شد”, but we should omit the word “کرده” and the correct result is “راهنمایی شد”.
سیل روستا را نابود کرد.
(The flood destroyed the village.)
فاطمه در اتاق را باز کرد.
(Fatemeh opened the door of the room.)
مهندسان موتور هواپیما را تعمیر کردند.
(The engineers repaired the engine of the airplane.)
روستا نابود شد.
(The village was destroyed.)
در اتاق باز شد.
(The door of the room was opened.)
موتور هواپیما تعمیر شد.
(The engine of the airplane was repaired.)